Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2019 - Volume 45  - Number 1  (January/February)

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3 - COPD: more treatment will translate to better breathing. Will it?

DPOC: quanto mais tratar, melhor vai respirar. Será?

Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira1,2,3,a, Marcelo Ferreira Nogueira2,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20190037

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Continuing Education: Imaging

4 - Hyperinflation surrounding a solitary nodule

Nódulo com hiperinsuflação adjacente

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20190013

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Original Article

6 - Management of COPD within the Brazilian Unified Health Care System in the state of Bahia: an analysis of real-life medication use patterns

Gerenciamento da DPOC no Sistema Único de Saúde do estado da Bahia: uma análise do padrão de utilização de medicamentos na vida real

Charleston Ribeiro Pinto1,2,3,a, Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos3,b, Lindemberg Assunção-Costa4,c, Aramis Tupiná de Alcântara5,d, Laira Lorena Lima Yamamura6,e, Gisélia Santana Souza4,f, Eduardo Martins Netto1,7,g

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170194

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe COPD pharmacological treatment patterns in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and to evaluate the extent to which these patterns conform to clinical guidelines for the management of COPD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 441 patients referred from the Public Health Care Network of the state of Bahia to a public referral outpatient clinic of a COPD management program of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Individuals with a spirometry-confirmed diagnosis of moderate to very severe COPD were included in the study. Patients were evaluated as to whether they had used any COPD medications in the last seven days. The appropriateness or inappropriateness (undertreatment or overtreatment) of the patient's pharmacological treatment was evaluated by comparing the patient's current treatment with that recommended by national and international guidelines. Results: A total of 383 individuals were included in the analysis. Approximately half of the patients (49.1%) used long-acting bronchodilators. These patients were older and had had the disease longer. Of the sample as a whole, 63.7% and 83.0% did not receive pharmacological treatment in accordance with international and national recommendations, respectively. Inappropriateness due to undertreatment was indentified in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Long-acting bronchodilators are frequently underused in individuals with moderate to very severe COPD within the Brazilian Unified Health Care System in the state of Bahia. Most patients in our sample were treated inappropriately, and undertreatment predominated. Strategies to improve access to long-acting bronchodilators and the quality of COPD pharmacological management are required.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/therapy; Drug therapy; Clinical protocols

 

7 - Validation of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index for risk stratification after acute pulmonary embolism in a cohort of patients in Brazil

Validação do Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index para a estratificação de risco após tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em uma coorte no Brasil

Leonardo de Araujo Soriano1,a, Talita Tavares Castro1,b, Kelvin Vilalva1,c, Marcos de Carvalho Borges1,d, Antonio Pazin-Filho1,e, Carlos Henrique Miranda1,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170251

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Objective: To validate the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), which was developed for risk stratification after acute pulmonary embolism (PE), for use in Brazil. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients admitted to the emergency department with acute PE. The original and simplified versions of the PESI were calculated using hospital admission data from medical records. The outcome measure was the overall 30-day mortality rate. Results: We included 123 patients. The mean age was 57 ± 17 years, and there was a predominance of females, who accounted for 60% of the cohort. There were 28 deaths, translating to an overall 30-day mortality rate of 23%. In the cluster analysis by risk class, overall 30-day mortality was 2.40% for classes I-II, compared with 20.00% for classes III-IV-V (relative risk [RR] = 5.9; 95% CI: 1.88-18.51; p = 0.0002). When we calculated overall 30-day mortality using the simplified version (0 points vs. ≥ 1 point), we found it to be 3.25% for 0 points and 19.51% for ≥ 1 point (RR = 2.38; 95% CI: 0.89-6.38; p = 0.06). Using the original version, a survival analysis showed that risk classes I and II presented similar Kaplan-Meier curves (p = 0.59), as did risk classes III, IV, and V (p = 0.25). However, the curve of the clusters based on the original version, showed significantly higher mortality in the III-IV-V classes than in the I-II classes (RR = 7.63; 95% CI: 2.29-25.21; p = 0.0001). The cluster analysis based on the original version showed a greater area under the ROC curve than did the analysis based on the simplified version (0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.77 vs. 0.60; 95% CI: 0.51-0.67; p = 0.05). Conclusions: The PESI adequately predicted the prognosis after acute PE in this sample of the population of Brazil. The cluster analysis based on the original version is the most appropriate analysis in this setting.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; Severity of illness index; Risk assessment.

 

8 - Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with factors associated with recurrent wheezing

Prevalência de deficiência de vitamina D e sua relação com fatores associados à sibilância recorrente

Mirna Brito Peçanha1,2,a, Rodrigo de Barros Freitas1,b, Tiago Ricardo Moreira1,c, Luiz Sérgio Silva1,2,d, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira3,4,e, Silvia Almeida Cardoso1,2,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170431

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in children 0-18 years of age with recurrent wheezing and/or asthma residing in the microregion of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and treated at a referral center, and to determine its association with major risk factors for wheezing. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a semi-structured questionnaire, which was administered by trained interviewers to the legal guardians of the study participants. Data were obtained regarding general characteristics of recurrent wheezing; general sociodemographic, environmental, and biologic factors; and atopy-related factors. The magnitude of the statistical association was assessed by calculating ORs and their corresponding 95% CIs by using multiple logistic regression. Results: We included 124 children in the study. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in the sample was 57.3%. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was found to be associated with wheezing in the first year of life, personal history of atopic dermatitis, environmental pollution, and vitamin D supplementation until 2 years of age. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was high in our sample. Vitamin D concentrations were directly associated with vitamin D supplementation until 2 years of age and were inversely associated with wheezing events in the first year of life, personal history of atopic dermatitis, and environmental pollution.

 


Keywords: Vitamin D; Asthma; Respiratory sounds; Minors.

 

9 - Evaluation of bone disease in patients with cystic fibrosis and end-stage lung disease

Avaliação de doença óssea em pacientes com fibrose cística e doença pulmonar terminal

Cécile A. Robinson1,a, Markus Hofer2,b, Christian Benden1,c, Christoph Schmid3,d

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170280

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Objective: Bone disease is a common comorbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to determine risk factors and identify potential biochemical markers for CF-related bone disease (CFBD) in a unique cohort of CF patients with end-stage lung disease undergoing lung transplantation (LTx) evaluation. Methods: All of the CF patients who were evaluated for LTx at our center between November of 1992 and December of 2010 were included in the study. Clinical data and biochemical markers of bone turnover, as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, were evaluated. Spearman's rho and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: A total of 102 adult CF patients were evaluated. The mean age was 28.1 years (95% CI: 26.7-29.5), and the mean body mass index was 17.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 17.2-18.2). Mean T-scores were −2.3 and −1.9 at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively, being lower in males than in females (−2.7 vs. −2.0 at the lumbar spine and −2.2 vs. −1.7 at the femoral neck). Overall, 52% had a T-score of < −2.5 at either skeletal site. The homozygous Phe508del genotype was found in 57% of patients without osteoporosis and in 60% of those with low BMD. Mean T-scores were not particularly low in patients with severe CFTR mutations. Although the BMI correlated with T-scores at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels did not. Conclusions: CFBD is common in CF patients with end-stage lung disease, particularly in males and patients with a low BMI. It appears that CF mutation status does not correlate with CFBD. In addition, it appears that low BMD does not correlate with other risk factors or biochemical parameters. The prevalence of CFBD appears to have recently decreased, most likely reflecting increased efforts at earlier diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Cystic fibrosis; Bone density; Osteoporosis.

 

10 - Does everyone who quit smoking gain weight? A real-world prospective cohort study

Todos os que param de fumar ganham peso? Estudo prospectivo de coorte do mundo real

Edna Jeremias-Martins1,2,a, José Miguel Chatkin1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20180010

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Objective: To evaluate weight changes after 12 months of biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, comparing patients who lost weight or maintained their baseline weight with those who gained weight. Methods: This was a real-world prospective cohort study conducted at the Outpatient Smoking Cessation Clinic of São Lucas Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2010 and 2016. The patients evaluated received intensive smoking cessation counseling, focused especially on weight issues, together with pharmacotherapy, and were followed for 12 months. The baseline and final weights were measured. Continuous abstinence was confirmed by determining the concentration of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO). Results: Of a total of 348 patients evaluated, 161 (46.2%) achieved continuous abstinence (eCO < 10 ppm) over the 12-month follow-up period. Of those 161 patients, 104 (64.6%) maintained their initial weight or had a weight change of no more than 5% in relation to their baseline weight, whereas the remaining 57 (35.4%) had a weight gain of more than 5%, 18 of those patients showing a > 10% increase over their baseline weight. The number needed to harm (i.e., the number of patients required in order to detect one patient with a weight increase) was calculated to be 3.6 (95% CI: 2.8-5.4). Conclusions: Weight gain is not necessarily associated with smoking cessation, and smokers who are motivated to quit should be informed of that fact. This information could also be useful for addressing smokers who are still undecided because of possibility of weight gain.

 


Keywords: Weight loss; Smoking cessation; Tobacco smoking; Treatment outcome.

 

11 - Incidence and morphological characteristics of the reversed halo sign in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction undergoing computed tomography angiography of the pulmonary arteries

Incidência e características morfológicas do sinal do halo invertido em pacientes com tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo e infarto pulmonar submetidos a angiotomografia de artérias pulmonares

Alexandre Dias Mançano1,a, Rosana Souza Rodrigues2,3,b, Miriam Menna Barreto2,c, Gláucia Zanetti2,d, Thiago Cândido de Moraes1,e, Edson Marchiori2,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170438

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Objective: To determine the incidence of the reversed halo sign (RHS) in patients with pulmonary infarction (PI) due to acute pulmonary embolism (PE), detected by computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, and to describe the main morphological features of the RHS. Methods: We evaluated 993 CTA scans, stratified by the risk of PE, performed between January of 2010 and December of 2014. Although PE was detected in 164 scans (16.5%), three of those scans were excluded because of respiratory motion artifacts. Of the remaining 161 scans, 75 (46.6%) showed lesions consistent with PI, totaling 86 lesions. Among those lesions, the RHS was seen in 33 (38.4%, in 29 patients). Results: Among the 29 patients with scans showing lesions characteristic of PI with the RHS, 25 (86.2%) had a single lesion and 4 (13.8%) had two, totaling 33 lesions. In all cases, the RHS was in a subpleural location. To standardize the analysis, all images were interpreted in the axial plane. Among those 33 lesions, the RHS was in the right lower lobe in 17 (51.5%), in the left lower lobe in 10 (30.3%), in the lingula in 5 (15.2%), and in the right upper lobe in 1 (3.0%). Among those same 33 lesions, areas of low attenuation were seen in 29 (87.9%). The RHS was oval in 24 (72.7%) of the cases and round in 9 (27.3%). Pleural effusion was seen in 21 (72.4%) of the 29 patients with PI and the RHS. Conclusions: A diagnosis of PE should be considered when there are findings such as those described here, even in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; Pulmonary infarction; Computed tomography angiography.

 

12 - Is a low level of education a limiting factor for asthma control in a population with access to pulmonologists and to treatment?

A baixa escolaridade é um fator limitante para o controle da asma em uma população com acesso a pneumologista e tratamento?

Cassia Caroline Emilio1,a, Cintia Fernanda Bertagni Mingotti1,b, Paula Regina Fiorin1,c, Leydiane Araujo Lima1,d, Raisa Lemos Muniz1,e, Luis Henrique Bigotto1,f, Evaldo Marchi2,g, Eduardo Vieira Ponte1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20180052

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Objective: To determine whether a low level of education is a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in a population of patients who have access to pulmonologists and to treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients > 10 years of age diagnosed with asthma who were followed by a pulmonologist for at least 3 months in the city of Jundiai, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients completed a questionnaire specifically designed for this study, the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (to assess the control of asthma symptoms), and a questionnaire designed to assess treatment adherence. Patients underwent spirometry, and patient inhaler technique was assessed. Results: 358 patients were enrolled in the study. Level of education was not considered a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma symptoms (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.94-1.05), spirometry findings consistent with obstructive lung disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01), uncontrolled asthma (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95-1.10), or the need for moderate/high doses of inhaled medication (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). The number of years of schooling was similar between the patients in whom treatment adherence was good and those in whom it was poor (p = 0.08), as well as between those who demonstrated proper inhaler technique and those who did not (p = 0.41). Conclusions: Among asthma patients with access to pulmonologists and to treatment, a low level of education does not appear to be a limiting factor for adequate asthma control.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Educational status; Spirometry; Treatment adherence and compliance.

 

13 - Obstructive sleep apnea and quality of life in elderly patients with a pacemaker

Apneia obstrutiva do sono e qualidade de vida em idosos portadores de marca-passo

Tatiana Albuquerque Gonçalves de Lima1,a, Evandro Cabral de Brito2,b, Robson Martins2,c, Sandro Gonçalves de Lima3,d, Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa2,e

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170333

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Objective: To evaluate quality of life in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who have a pacemaker. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age) with a pacemaker. The dependent variable was quality of life, as evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Sociodemographic and clinical parameters, including anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score), as well as the presence of OSA (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h), were analyzed as independent variables. Patients with cognitive/neurological deficits or decompensated heart failure were excluded. Results: We evaluated 72 patients, 17 (23.6%) of whom presented OSA. Of those 17 patients, 9 (52.9%) were male. The mean age was 72.3 ± 9.3 years. A diagnosis of OSA was not associated with gender (p = 0.132), age (p = 0.294), or body mass index (p = 0.790). There were no differences between the patients with OSA and those without, in terms of the SF-36 domain scores. Fourteen patients (19.4%) presented moderate or severe anxiety. Of those 14 patients, only 3 (21.4%) had OSA (p = 0.89 vs. no OSA). Twelve patients (16.6%) had moderate or severe depression. Of those 12 patients, only 2 (16.6%) had OSA (p = 0.73 vs. no OSA). Conclusions: In elderly patients with a pacemaker, OSA was not found to be associated with quality of life or with symptoms of anxiety or depression.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Aged; Sleep apnea, obstructive.

 

14 - Back to the future: a case series of minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum with regular instruments

De volta para o futuro: série de casos de reparo minimamente invasivo do pectus excavatum com instrumentos comuns

Miguel Lia Tedde1,a, Silvia Yukari Togoro1,b, Robert Stephen Eisinger2,c, Erica Mie Okumura1,d, Angelo Fernandes1,e, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,f, Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos1,g

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170373

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Objective: Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) is a surgical treatment for PE. During the procedure, a specialized introducer is used to tunnel across the mediastinum for thoracoscopic insertion of a metal bar. There have been reported cases of cardiac perforation during this risky step. The large introducer can be a dangerous lever in unskilled hands. We set out to determine the safety and feasibility of using regular instruments (i.e., not relying on special devices or tools) to create the retrosternal tunnel during MIRPE. Methods: This was a preliminary study of MIRPE with regular instruments (MIRPERI), involving 28 patients with PE. We recorded basic patient demographics, chest measurements, and surgical details, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Patients undergoing MIRPERI had Haller index values ranging from 2.58 to 5.56. No intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative complications included nausea/vomiting in 8 patients, pruritus in 2, and dizziness in 2, as well as atelectasis, pneumothorax with thoracic drainage, pleural effusion, and dyspnea in 1 patient each. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the rate of complications associated with MIRPERI was comparable to that reported in the literature for MIRPE. The MIRPERI approach has the potential to improve the safety of PE repair, particularly for surgeons that do not have access to certain special instruments or have not been trained in their use.

 


Keywords: Funnel chest; Heart injuries; Thoracic wall; Intraoperative complications; Minimally invasive surgical procedures.

 

Review Article

15 - Dysfunctional breathing: what do we know?

Disfunção respiratória: o que sabemos?

Laís Silva Vidotto1,a, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho2,b, Alex Harvey1,c, Mandy Jones1,d

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170347

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Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is a respiratory condition characterized by irregular breathing patterns that occur either in the absence of concurrent diseases or secondary to cardiopulmonary diseases. Although the primary symptom is often dyspnea or "air hunger", DB is also associated with nonrespiratory symptoms such as dizziness and palpitations. DB has been identified across all ages. Its prevalence among adults in primary care in the United Kingdom is approximately 9.5%. In addition, among individuals with asthma, a positive diagnosis of DB is found in a third of women and a fifth of men. Although DB has been investigated for decades, it remains poorly understood because of a paucity of high-quality clinical trials and validated outcome measures specific to this population. Accordingly, DB is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, given the similarity of its associated symptoms (dyspnea, tachycardia, and dizziness) to those of other common cardiopulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma. The high rates of misdiagnosis of DB suggest that health care professionals do not fully understand this condition and may therefore fail to provide patients with an appropriate treatment. Given the multifarious, psychophysiological nature of DB, a holistic, multidimensional assessment would seem the most appropriate way to enhance understanding and diagnostic accuracy. The present narrative review was developed as a means of summarizing the available evidence about DB, as well as improving understanding of the condition by researchers and practitioners.

 


Keywords: Hyperventilation; Pulmonary ventilation; Respiratory system; Pulmonary medicine.

 

Author's reply

21 - Authors' reply: Reflections on the use of thrombolytic agents in acute pulmonary embolism

Resposta dos autores: Reflexões sobre o uso de trombolítico na embolia pulmonar aguda

Caio Julio Cesar dos Santos Fernandes1,2,a, Carlos Vianna Poyares Jardim1,b, José Leonidas Alves Jr1,2,c, Francisca Alexandra Gavilanes Oleas1,d, Luciana Tamie Kato Morinaga1,e, Rogério de Souza1,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20180297

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